March 21: Today in Royal History

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Princess Louise of the United Kingdom; Credit – Wikipedia

March 21, 1795 – Death of Honoré III, Prince of Monaco in Paris, France, his burial place in unknown
Honoré III, Prince of Monaco is the longest-reigning sovereign of Monaco but the French Revolution had dire consequences for his family and caused the Principality of Monaco to be annexed to France from 1793 until the defeat of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French in 1814. He married Maria Caterina Brignole and the couple had two sons including Honoré IV, Prince of Monaco. Honoré III was imprisoned during the French Revolution. He died soon after his release from prison, in Paris on March 21, 1795, at the age of 74, but his burial place is unknown.
Unofficial Royalty: Honoré III, Prince of Monaco

March 21, 1801 – Birth of Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of Sardinia, wife of Carlo Alberto I, King of Sardinia, in Vienna, Austria
Full name: Maria Theresa Franziska Josepha Johanna Benedikta
Maria Theresa was the daughter of Ferdinando III, Grand Duke of Tuscany and his first wife Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily. In 1817, she married the future Carlo Alberto I, King of Sardinia. They had three children including Vittorio Emanuele II, King of Sardinia, later King of Italy, who became the first king of a united Italy. Maria Theresa’s husband became King of Sardinia in 1831. In 1848, Carlo Alberto attempted to rid the Italian peninsula of Austrian-ruled and supported states resulting in the First Italian War of Independence, part of the Italian Unification. After his forces were defeated by the Austrian forces, Carlo Alberto immediately abdicated in favor of his son Vittorio Emanuele and went into exile in Portugal. However, he became seriously ill during the trip and died soon after reaching his destination. After the death of her husband, Maria Theresa no longer appeared in public. However, she was a great influence on her son Vittorio Emanuele II, King of Sardinia. Her son became a driving force behind the Italian unification movement along with Giuseppe Garibaldi, a general and nationalist, and Giuseppe Mazzini, a politician and journalist. However, Maria Theresa did not live long enough to see her son become King of a united Italy. On January 12, 1855, in Turin, Maria Theresa died at the age of 53.
Unofficial Royalty: Maria Theresa of Austria, Queen of Sardinia

March 21, 1852 – Death of Marie of Hesse-Kassel, Queen of Denmark, wife of King Frederick VI of Denmark, at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, Denmark; buried at Roskilde Cathedral in Roskilde, Denmark
Marie was the daughter of Prince Carl of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Louise of Denmark and Norway. Her father was the second son of Friedrich II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Mary of Great Britain, daughter of King George II of Great Britain. Her mother was the youngest child of King Frederik V of Denmark and Norway and his first wife Princess Louisa of Great Britain, daughter of King George II of Great Britain. In 1790, Marie married the future King Frederick VI of Denmark. Frederik and Marie had eight children but unfortunately, six of them, including two boys, died in infancy. Only two daughters survived and both daughters had childless marriages. For the rest of her life, Marie would lament her lack of sons and grandchildren. Injuries from her last childbirth prevented Marie from having any further marital relations and she was forced to accept her husband’s adultery. After her husband’s death in 1839, Marie retired from public life but remained a respected figure, living at Frederiksborg Castle and Amalienborg Palace. She died on March 21, 1852, at the age of 84.
Unofficial Royalty: Marie of Hesse-Kassel, Queen of Denmark

March 21, 1871 – Wedding of Princess Louise of the United Kingdom, daughter of Queen Victoria, and John Campbell, Lord Lorne later 9th Duke of Argyll, at St. George’s Chapel in Windsor, England
Louise broke with tradition and married a non-royal. Several foreign princes were put forward as possible husbands for Louise. However, none of these princes was agreeable to Queen Victoria, and Louise herself wanted nothing to do with marriage to a prince. Instead, she found herself falling in love with John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne and heir to the Dukedom of Argyll. Queen Victoria found this to be a wonderful match, infusing ‘new blood’ into the royal family. Others, including the Prince of Wales, found it appalling that Louise should marry below her class. Despite these misgivings, the couple became engaged on October 3, 1870.  Their marriage was childless. Louise’s husband served the crown as Governor-General of Canada for five years and Louise accompanied him to Canada.
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of Princess Louise and John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll

March 21, 1924 – Death of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg, first husband of Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia, in Antibes, France; buried in the crypt of St. Michael the Archangel Russian Orthodox Church in Cannes, France
Peter was the only child of Duke Alexander Petrovich of Oldenburg and Princess Eugenia Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg. Alexander Petrovich’s grandfather had married Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna, daughter of Paul I, Emperor of All Russia, and their children and grandchildren were raised in Russia. Despite his German title, Alexander Petrovich, like his father, had grown up entirely in Russia, served in the Russian military, and was considered part of the Russian Imperial Family. Peter and Olga’s marriage was arranged by their mothers and was a marriage in name only. Two years after their marriage, Olga met Nikolai Kulikovsky, an army officer her own age. Over the years, Olga had continued to ask her brother Nicholas II, Emperor of All Russia for permission to marry Nikolai. In 1916, Nicholas II had a change of heart and he officially annulled her marriage to Peter, and Olga and Nikolai were married. After the October Revolution in 1917, Peter along with his father and mother emigrated to France, where he lived in Paris and on a farm near Bayonne, France. In 1922, Peter married Olga Vladimirovna Ratkova-Rognova. Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg died at the age of 55.
Unofficial Royalty: Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg

March 21, 1929 – Wedding of the future King Olav V of Norway and Princess Märtha of Sweden at Oslo Cathedral in Oslo, Norway
As first cousins, Olav and Märtha had known each other since childhood, and in the late 1920s, they began a romantic relationship. They managed to keep the relationship private, with Olav often traveling to Sweden in disguise to see his future bride. While both were in Amsterdam in 1928 for the Summer Olympic Games (in which Olav was competing), they became secretly engaged. The following January, after Olav again traveled to Sweden, traveling under an assumed name, the engagement was officially announced on January 14, 1929. The announcement was met with great support and excitement in both Norway and Sweden. Märtha never became Queen of Norway. She died from cancer before Olav became King of Norway.
Unofficial Royalty: Wedding of King Olav V of Norway and Princess Märtha of Sweden

March 21, 1943 – Birth of Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the pretender to the former ducal throne, and Head of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Full name: Andreas Michael Friedrich Hans Armin Siegfried Hubertus
Andreas is a grandson of Charles Edward, the last reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and is the pretender to the former ducal throne, and head of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Unofficial Royalty: Andreas, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

March 21, 1985 – Birth of Princess Claire of Luxembourg, wife of Prince Félix of Luxembourg, born Claire Margareta Lademacher in Filderstadt, Germany
Claire has impressive academic credentials. She received a Bachelors degree in International Communication from the American University of Paris and a Masters degree in bioethics at the Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum in Rome. After earning her Masters, remained in Rome to pursue a doctorate in organ donation ethics. As part of this program, she spent several months as a visiting scholar at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University in the United States.
Unofficial Royalty: Princess Claire of Luxembourg

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